real advice by real locals
Public transport in Sweden is generally excellent. Each county (län) runs its own network of buses (and sometimes trains). There are also national long-distance express services.
No matter what you choose, you can use the excellent ResRobot planning tool; it searches most routes in Sweden - regional and national buses, trains, flights, etc. Use the tool to the right on this page or visit the ResRobot site. However, ResRobot won't show you prices. But you can also search for trips and buy tickets through the main train operator SJ; their website sells train tickets but also tickets for buses.
Each county in Sweden provides at least bus services, and often trains or trams. Tickets can be used on either and you can typically transfer freely from one to the other within a given amount of time. If you intend to stay in a particular region for a while, look up ticket options; you can usually buy weekly or monthly passes or get discounts.
These are the regional companies as of today: Blekingetrafiken, Dalatrafik, Hallandstrafiken, Jönköpings länstrafik, Kalmar Läns Trafik, Kollektivtrafiken (Gotland), Länstrafiken i Jämtlands län, Länstrafiken i Västerbotten, Länstrafiken Kronoberg, Länstrafiken Norrbotten, Länstrafiken Sörmland, Länstrafiken Örebro, Skånetrafiken, Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, Upplands lokaltrafik, Värmlandstrafik, Västernorrlands läns trafik, Västmanlands lokaltrafik, Västtrafik (Västra Götaland), Waxholmsbolaget (boat services in Stockholm) X-Trafik (Gävleborg), Östgötatrafiken.
Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, SL, runs the public transport in Stockholm and Stockholm County - buses, subway and commuter trains.
Västtrafik runs the public transport in the Gothenburg area - buses, trams, trains, ferries.
Skånetrafiken operates buses and trains in Malmö as well as the rest of Skåne.
Going by bus is often cheaper than going by train in Sweden.
Swebus is the largest express bus operator with about 300 destinations:
Good to know:
Svenska Buss has several bus lines: Stockholm-Sundsvall-Ånge/Härnösand, Stockholm-Vetlanda-Växjö, Stockholm-Vimmerby-Kalmar-Nybro/Åseda/Oskarshamn, Stockholm-Karlskrona-Malmö, Göteborg-Jönköping-Stockholm.
Ybuss runs long-distance buses to/from northern Sweden (e.g., Sundsvall, Östersund, Umeå, Luleå, Sollefteå). (Note that Ybuss cooperates with Swebus for booking, so that through Ybuss you can book a journey involving a Swebus route and vice versa.)
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